Thursday, February 11, 2010

Honda CR-V 2010

Honda CR-V for 2010 with updated styling, upgraded specification levels and more aggressive pricing.  

This intransigence has seemingly had little effect on the CR-V's popularity. Honda Canada has sold more than 215,000 of the SUVs since the CR-V's arrival in 1997. It was the fourth-bestselling SUV in the country in 2009 (behind the Ford Escape, Toyota RAV4 and Hyundai Santa Fe -- all three of which are sold with four-and six-cylinder engines and, in Ford's case, a hybrid option). In my neck of the woods, one doesn't have to drive more than a couple of blocks to see one in the driveway

 The ride and handling has been improved with revisions to the front suspension. Revised side mirrors and extra sound deadening around the engine bay and cabin have improved NVH levels and passenger comfort.
The engine upticks are especially appreciated. An additional 14 horsepower pumps up the 2.4-litre engine to 180 hp, a competitive output among fourcylinder-powered SUVs. Honda's tech team increased the four-banger's compression ratio to 10:5:1 from 9.7:1 and added fuel injectors with a finer spray pattern, larger intake valves, spark plugs with extended electrodes, friction-reducing piston rings, a higher-precision timing sensor and a higher flow-rate exhaust system. The CR-V is no more an S2000-like SUV than it ever was, but the engine seems smoother than before going through the automatic's five-forward gears, and it is just a little more responsive when the gas pedal is given a nudge. Fuel economy ratings see about a half-litre improvement in both the city and highway cycles --9.8/7.1 litres per 100 kilometres on two-wheel-drive models and 10.1/7.5 L/100 km on models equipped with Real Time 4WD. My real-world driving with the 4WD tester saw a combined average of 11.5 L/100 km for the week 

The 2010 Honda CR-V range is available now in two new colours – Urban Titanium and Habenero Red – for the following manufacturer’s list prices (includes GST, excludes dealer delivery and statutory charges):
Standard manual – $30,990 (down $2000)
Standard auto – $33,290 (down $2000)
Sport auto – $38,790 (down $3500)
Luxury auto – $42,790 (down $3000)

Citroen 2010 C5

The first is a new 2.0HDi 16V 119kW diesel that will replace both the existing 2.0- and 2.2-litre diesels. Based on the 3.0-litre V6 twin turbo-diesel that has just been released in the Jaguar XF and is heading for the Land Rover Discovery before the end of 2009, the new engine lifts power and torque but slashes fuel consumption and emissions compared to its 150kW/440Nm 2.7-litre V6 HDi twin-turbo predecessor.

Dubbed the 3.0 V6 HDi 240 FAP to reflect its European horsepower rating, the 2993cc engine delivers 18 per cent more power (177kW at 3800rpm) and about 12 per cent more torque (450Nm from 1600 to 3600rpm).

Bigger is better: The Citroen C5 will get a bigger, 3.0-litre diesel next year in Australia, with more power and improved fuel economy.

This translates into a 0-100km/h sprint-time of 7.9 seconds in the C5 (formerly 9.6s) and 8.5 seconds in the C6 (previously rated at 8.9 seconds).

Left: Citroen C6.

Nevertheless, there are significant gains in fuel consumption, with the 7.4 litres per 100km average representing a cut of 1.0L/100km and 1.5L/100km in the C5 and C6 respectively, while the 195 grams per kilometre of carbon dioxide emissions is 12 to 15 per cent better than before.

Spurring on the changes are a 272cc capacity increase, third-generation direct common-rail injection system using injection pressures of up to 2000 bars, compared with 1650, revised combustion chambers, twin variable displacement turbochargers, a revamped exhaust gas recirculation set-up that improves the thermal capability of the fuel/water exchange by 40 per cent, and an energy recovery system during deceleration and braking via a special new alternator.


Tuesday, February 09, 2010

New BMW X5 revealed 2010 review

A revised version of the BMW X5 will go on sale in June this year, with a new range of cleaner engines, more standard equipment and updated looks. The most obvious change is the new styling. At the front, there are revised bumpers and new headlights, while the fog lights are mounted more centrally. Likewise, the rear has new light clusters, larger tailpipes and a redesigned bumper. 

Every model now also has an eight-speed automatic gearbox, which combines with the new engines to give better performance and lower emissions on both of the new diesel engines. Exterior modifications are limited to revised bumpers and light clusters, front and rear, plus enlarged tailpipes. The big news, though, is a new line-up of cleaner but more powerful engines. 

The entry-level xDrive30d has been upgraded to produce 241bhp, 10bhp more than before, while returning 38.2mpg and only 195g/km of CO2. The xDrive40d uses an engine first seen on the 7-Series. The new xDrive40d replaces the xDrive35d, and also combines more power and stronger performance with lower emissions and better economy. It emits 198g/km of CO2, while averaging 37.7mpg. At the top of the range is the X5’s only petrol engine, the xDrive50i, which has over 50bhp more than the old xDrive48i – and takes a second less to reach 60mph as a result.

Prices : £43,980 for the 30d SE, rising to £58,175 for the 50i M Sport


Audi A8 Saloon reviews

Elegant looks, refinement, aluminium construction
Ride could still be a little smoother

The big Audi luxury car has an amazing range of engines. Even the 207bhp 2.8-litre V6 copes reasonably well, as the all-aluminium A8 is impressively light weight for such a large motor. This means the pace of the V8 versions is searing – particularly the amazing 4.2-litre TDI, which storms to 60mph in 6.1 seconds, yet still returns reasonable economy. Quattro four-wheel-drive for most models means the power can be deployed without fuss as well. There are two choices of automatic gearbox, CVT or conventional auto, though the latter can be a little jerky at times. Superb air suspension provides extremely assured road manners, while the steering is light and direct. The ride can be pattery at times, though.

We reckon you’re best off with the entry-level 2.8 V6 – it’s plenty fast enough for most people, as well as providing surprisingly good fuel economy and low emissions. The other petrol engines - a 3.2 V6, 4.2 V8, 5.2 V10 and 6.0 W12 - range from fast to downright ferocious, but running them will cost a bomb. The diesels are tempting, too, with a choice of a 3.0 V6 and a 4.2 V8, both of which provide very strong performance.

Ride and Handling
All A8s ride on an air-suspension system with four settings. Body control is good for a big car, and the A8 handles tidily for its size. Speed-sensitive power steering makes the A8 easy to drive in town, but it lacks feel at higher speeds. A good driving position and electric adjustment for the seat and steering wheel make it easy to get comfortable up front, while the main controls and instruments are easily reached. A single knob between the front seats controls the stereo, satellite-navigation system and suspension settings, with menus viewed on a dash-top screen, but the system isn’t entirely intuitive.

All of the engines are muted in everyday driving and they issue only a subdued growl under hard acceleration. Road noise is also kept to a low level over most surfaces, while minimal wind noise at speed is only noticeable because of the absence of any other noises.


Honda Accord Crosstour 2010

Modern Styling

A streamlined tailgate and sleek lines tell you that this is a whole new kind of Accord

Big Where It Counts

Born from the Accord, the Accord Crosstour is wider, longer and taller. From big 18-inch alloy wheels (EX-L) to the bold front grille, it makes a statement.

The heart of Honda’s Accord lineup is its strong selling four cylinder models. Yet the Crosstour is available only with V6 power. Why? The Crosstour is positioned at the very top of the Accord food chain—plus we’d guess the wagon’s extra 300 pounds over a comparable Accord Sedan require more gusto to move than the four can provide. So under the hood is a 271 hp 3.5-liter V6 with 254 lb-ft of torque paired solely to a five-speed automatic with a new rev-matching downshift feature. The V6 has Honda’s Variable Cylinder Management (VCM) system, like the 2009 Honda Pilot so it can choose to run the engine on 3, 4 or 6-cylinder operation to optimize fuel usage.

Not surprisingly, the Honda Accord Crosstour is based on, wait for it, the Honda Accord’s chassis. The wheelbase is within a tenth of an inch of the sedan, but the Crosstour is 2.5-inches longer. The modifications to the Accord platform are minimal, with unique springs and dampers and a constant ratio hydraulic steering rack replacing the variable unit. The Crosstour also has a more powerful brake system with two-piston calipers upfront and larger rear discs.
Front wheel drive comes standard, but Honda does offer the wintertime security of all-wheel drive. Speaking of rough road capability, all Crosstours offer 6 inches of ground clearance, which doesn’t sound particularly impressive right? Here’s why: The measurement is taken at the aerodynamic fins (Honda calls “strakes”) just ahead of the front wheels. Take the tape underneath the car to the differentials, and the measurement is a more dirt road friendly 8.1 inches—just like the Toyota Venza.

Inside, the Crosstour has the same basic interior as the Accord—which is no bad thing. The top-range, EX-L Navi ($34,770 in front-drive trim and $36,220 with all-wheel drive) models we drove came with 18-inch wheels and felt upscale with a broad plank of wood across the dash and comfy and supportive heated leather seats. The rear seats fold flat for maximum cargo hauling. With those seats up, you can fit 25.7 cu-ft. of stuff behind them. Fold the seats down; via the handy levers in the cargo area, and you can pile 51.3 cu-ft of gear into the Crosstour. The Toyota Venza can swallow 34.4 cu-ft with the seats up and 70.1 with them folded down. And the Venza comes with reclining rear seat—a feature Honda lacks. The Honda’s cargo area has a few smart touches, including a washable pullout box beneath the floor. The Toyota has far less usable under floor storage because the spare tire and jack take up a portion of that area. Honda hides its spare underneath the chassis.

Engine Type V-6 V-6
Engine Block/Cylinder Head Aluminum-Alloy Aluminum-Alloy
Displacement (cc) 3471 3471
Horsepower @ rpm (SAE net) 271 @ 6200 271 @ 6200
Torque (lb-ft @ rpm) 254 @ 5000 254 @ 5000
Bore and Stroke (mm) 89 x 93 89 x 93
Compression Ratio 10.5 : 1 10.5 : 1
Redline 6800 6800
Valve Train 24-Valve SOHC i-VTEC® 24-Valve SOHC i-VTEC®
Multi-Point Fuel Injection Standard Standard
Drive-by-Wire™ Throttle System Standard Standard
Real Time™ 4-Wheel Drive   Available
Variable Cylinder Management™ (VCM®) Standard Standard
Active Sound Control Standard Standard
CARB Emissions Rating ULEV-2[1]  ULEV-2[1] 
Direct Ignition System with Immobilizer Standard Standard
100K +/- Miles No Scheduled Tune-Ups[2]  Standard Standard
5-Speed Automatic Transmission Standard Standard
Gear Ratios: 1st: 2.697, 2nd: 1.606, 3rd: 1.071, 4th: 0.766, 5th: 0.612, Reverse: 1.889 Final Drive Ratio: 4.533    
Unit-Body Construction Standard Standard
Double Wishbone Front Suspension Standard Standard
Independent Multi-Link Rear Suspension Standard Standard
Stabilizer Bar (mm, front/rear) 2WD (4WD) 27.2 / 14.0 27.2 / 14.0 (27.2 / 15.0)
Front Shock Tower Bar Standard Standard
Power-Assisted Rack-and-Pinion Steering Standard Standard
Steering Wheel Turns, Lock-to-Lock 2.76 2.76
Steering Ratio 15.2 15.2
Turning Diameter, Curb-to-Curb (ft) 40.2 40.2
Power-Assisted Ventilated Front Disc/Solid Rear Disc Brakes (in) 11.7 / 12.0 11.7 / 12.0
Wheels 17" Alloy 18" Alloy
All-Season Tires 225/65 R17 102T 225/60 R18 100H

The Drive

It’s hard not to compare the Accord Crosstour to the Toyota Venza—especially since Honda had a fleet of Venza’s for us to drive back to back. On the seaside roads of Rancho Palos Verdes near Honda’s Torrance headquarters, we took the Crosstour on driving loops high above the pacific. The Honda is most notable for the traits it lacks. There is not a trucky bone in this crossover’s body. On the sliding scale between car and crossover, the Crosstour is two or three notches closer to “car” than the Venza.

The Honda’s driving position is very similar to the Accord sedan and feels much lower than the more typical crossover seating position of the Venza. The Crosstour’s ride is smooth and firm, firmer than the last Accord sedan we remember driving, with crisp responses to the steering input. The Crosstour feels relatively light on its feet compared to the Venza, with more precise steering and a sportier overall demeanor. The Honda drives smaller than it actually is, which might make it a less intimidating choice for those that have to contend with tight urban streets.

Climb into the back seats, and it’s again the Honda that is more car-like. The seats and the view out the front are just like an Accord sedan. The Venza’s taller rear seats created more legroom, at least in our informal test. And we did appreciate the Venza’s reclining seat feature. There appears to be less headroom for rear seat passengers in the Accord Crosstour.

We did not have a chance to test fuel economy, but when you compare an automatic V6 front-drive Accord Crosstour to a similarly equipped Venza, the mileage differences are minimal. Venza returns 19-mpg city and 26-mpg highway, while the Crosstour delivers 18-mpg city and 27 mpg on the highway. It’s unlikely that these vehicles would be used for frequent towing chores, but it’s worth noting that the Crosstour can only handle 1500 pounds of trailer—a V6 Venza is rated for 3500 pounds.

The new Accord Crosstour features the same impressive level of safety technology found in every Accord.
Active Systems: Control

To help keep you on course and away from danger, Vehicle Stability Assist™ (VSA®) helps sense oversteer or understeer in an emergency situation, and then adjusts brake pressure at each wheel and/or reduces engine power to help restore driver control. Standard 4-wheel anti-lock disc brakes (ABS), with Electronic Brake Distribution (EBD), help you maintain control during hard braking. Properly inflated tires are crucial for safe operation, so the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS)[2] alerts the driver when a tire's pressure reaches a significantly low level.

Passive Systems: Protection
The Crosstour has been engineered to help protect you and your passengers when a collision just cannot be avoided. The Advanced Compatibility Engineering™ (ACE™) body structure disperses frontal crash energy over a wide area, helping to keep it away from passengers.
Airbags and More
Standard front, front side and side curtain airbags with rollover sensor help reduce the likelihood of injuries in a collision. Driver’s and front passenger's active head restraints help reduce the likelihood of whiplash injuries in a sufficient rear impact.


Tuning diesels for maximum power and torque

From a diesel perspective, anything that isn't turbocharged is a waste of time from a tuning point of view. Similarly, anything that isn't using electronically managed direct injection is a pointless tuning proposal so we are somewhat limited to modern Turbo Diesels.Get rid of those two ointment bound flies and things get more interesting. A 2001 plated Peugeot 406 2.2HDi has been re-mapped from factory spec 136bhp (it's pretty good in that tune with 235lbft to play with!) to a whopping 192bhp@4150rpm and 329lbft (yes, that's right, we have NOT confused Nm with lbft) delivered from 2250rpm.

This endows the car with mid-range thump that wouldn't disgrace a Boxster or Audi TT with the silly engine option. NO stopwatch necessary, this is a genuinely rapid car now, it both feels quick and achieves the numbers to be quick.

All the anti-diesel folks will bang on about 0-60. Well, (TorqueCars member) HDIfun has never put a stopwatch on it in anger but says "you can do it in well under 8 seconds without going over 3500rpm! In gear acceleration is a bit of a giggle too - 50 to 70 in FOURTH in about 2.5 seconds!! 70 to 90 in fifth in under 6!!! Flat out, who cares, the factory spec is said to be good for 129mph."

Go figure for yourselves - and then reckon into the equation over 35mpg when driven in anger. A powerful turbo diesel is perfect for the half grown up driver, and, boy will you lurrve that sheer muscle. It the sensible and fun choice.

Everyone who has driven a current 330d or a 535d will likely agree that they are disgustingly rapid from the factory. These engines can still be made to deliver more torque, but you have to question if it's really necessary given the ease with which they both fling themselves foward in response to a gentle squeezing of the right toes

Some assert that manufacturers modestly undertune the current crop of performance diesels in order to create a place in the market for their petrol powered models. In the case of the Golf GT tdi I've still to meet anyone who doesn't exceed the standard manufacturers acceleration claims by a whole second. For some folks, only petrol will do.
Curiously, in my estimation these are of the older generation who will not even test drive a diesel car because 'they're slow and noisy, aren't they?'. Just look how many current model Micras are being driven around with Nissan's excellent but spineless small capacity 4 cylinder petrol units. Try the dCi 82, for example. It handles like a go-kart and accelerates absolutely beautifully. It would suit your dad perfectly.

Induction kits and exhaust should theoretically offer a slight increase in power as you still require an efficient delivery of lots of cold air and a way to expel them as efficiently as possible. The bore size of Diesel exhausts is typically much larger than a similar powered petrol car especially on Turbo Diesel models. Initially I would recommend just adding a good quality (washable) high flow panel air filter to the standard air box.

As for internal mods for sophisticated diesel engines, typically the rewards obey the law of diminishing returns. With forced induction there's only so far you can go with cam/valve lift and air (gas) flow. Especially with a diesel engine, given the limited rev range there's not that much reward from tuning a head in the traditional way. Diesel burns very slowly (hence the 4000rpm peak BHP most achieve, even if they will spin to over 5000rpm).

Getting the flame front inside the combustion chamber to accelerate faster than the piston crown is the only real option, and this is to some degree achieved by allow small amount of fuel to be injected during the expansion phase of the engine's cycle.Too much of this and you get smoke and soot, and burn a load of fuel. Increasing the BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) by means such as increased boost can assist. This, too, is a double edged sword as the biggest fraction of the atmosphere is nitrogen, which, although good for cooling, is still incombustible.

hat's where nitrous comes in, in the same way it does in a petrol powered vehicle. The gains achieved in this way can be absolutely silly, but given the cost and legal position with regard to road usage it's a bit of a white elephant.

Increasing the cetane rating of diesel fuel is quite effective in increasing the release of 'free' power. With a diesel engine, the key is getting the fuel to burn more rapidly, as opposed to a petrol engine where octane number is God. Higher octane petrol fuels burn more slowly and resist pre-ignition better than low octane fuels. Pre warming the fuel and direct injection into the combustion chamber all help to improve the speed and efficiency of combustion.

Good results can be obtained with cetane improvers. Sadly, these can prove expensive and should not be used in engines that are Euro Iv (2004) compliant. Strangely, the 2.2HDi  2001 model is 2004 compliant. The particle filter ( a whole subject in itself) can become blocked or excessively obstructed by use of such products.

Weight reduction is very very sensible. Not only does less weight mean better performance for free, it also puts less load on tyres, which allows braking and handling to be optimised. It also reduces the load on the environment as less fuel is required, thereby the release of exhaust gases is reduced.

Downsides of Diesels:
Engine mass/weight is a standard problem with diesel cars (especially FWD ones). That heavy engine can upset the handling balance of a car. Diesel units are heavy; they're dealing with big compression ratios and big torque figures. As such, the bearings are larger in diameter, the gearboxes belong in lorries and tractors even if the change quality is good.

Clutches are getting on for 12" diameter and require fluid operation and servo assistance to make the things pleasant to drive, often a standard clutch will suffer from slip when a remap yields a massive torque figure so you may need to uprate the clutch.


Ford Shelby GT500 Mustang

Ford Shelby GT500 Mustang carries a supercharged 5.4-liter V8 that weighs less, more power, uses a unique spray-coating process that eliminates the need for cast-iron liners in the aluminum cylinder block. 550-hp Shelby GT500 also loses something from the previous model--it's gas-guzzler tax. The new Shelby GT500 will deliver 23 mpg on the highway and 15 mpg in the city. The engine is rated at 550 hp and 510 lb-ft of torque.

The use of aluminum for the block helps cut 102 pounds from the engine. Instead of cast-iron cylinder liners, Ford uses a process Plasma Transferred Wire Arc to spray a thin coating of iron on the inside of the cylinder bores. The process, adapted from the aerospace industry, saves eight pounds compared with a traditional aluminum block with iron liners. Better handling performance, an available SVT Performance Package adds lighter wheels, a higher rear-axle ratio, stiffer springs, unique high-performance Goodyear tires, electric power steering and high-intensity discharge headlamps, and an optional glass roof for the coupes. All Shelby GT500s will continue to be fitted with Ford's stability-control system.

The new engine uses state-of-the-art Plasma Transferred Wire Arc (PTWA) liner coating, a process that applies a 150-micron composite coating that contains nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of engine cylinder bores, replacing cast-iron liners typically used in aluminum engine blocks. The Intellectual Property Owners Education Foundation honored the inventors of the Ford-patented PTWA technology with the 2009 National Inventor of the Year Award.

This is the first Ford application of the technology, and it offers improved overall performance and durability, along with functional benefits of reduced friction between piston rings and cylinder bores, improved heat transfer due to increased surface contact area and a weight savings of 8.5 pounds compared to a typical steel-sleeved aluminum block. A mechanical roughening process provides higher material adhesion for the spray coating.
“Ford's Global Research and Advanced Engineering looks to all industries for advanced technologies – and this comes from aerospace. It's the same technology you would find on aircraft engines,” said Glenn Jorgensen, SVT powertrain team leader. “We've invented a coating as a replacement for cast iron that delivers improvements in power and performance and fuel economy.”

The new engine also has its roots in the iconic Ford GT. The new 5.4-liter engine is an evolution of the GT engine, with improved block structure through the use of a unique bulkhead chilled process and six-bolt billet main bearing caps. This new advanced engine will exceed Ford GT performance with its traditional supercharger technology.

Extensive sealing modifications ensure cold air from the front of the Mustang feed the engine. The redline for the V8 engine is increased 250 rpm to 6,500  and revised calibration ensures the customer fully feels these changes. What’s more, the 4.6-liter, three-valve SOHC V-8 engine is the most-accessorized engine in the marketplace. The engine is mated to a smooth-moving standard five-speed manual transmission. A responsive, tight, five-speed automatic transmission is also available.
 “The Ford GT has solidified itself as one of the world's most coveted supercars. To make improvements to the engine from this supercar and make it available in a Mustang is impressive,” said Kerry Baldori, SVT global performance vehicle chief functional engineer. “The aluminum-block engine is robust and strong enough to produce the performance numbers and durability our customers demand.”
Increased power and increased fuel economy
The 2011 Shelby GT500 combines power and fuel economy into one impressive package. This 2011 Shelby GT500 will be the first modern Shelby without the gas guzzler tax, thanks to the EPA-projected 23 mpg highway and 15 mpg city it will deliver. This is up from 22 mpg highway and 14 mpg city for the 2010 model.
The 5.4-liter V-8 achieves 80 percent of its torque between 1,750 and 6,250 rpm, giving the car a higher level of performance feel. A larger two-row intercooler for the supercharger system has 40 percent more cooling capacity, helping to make power more consistent in higher ambient conditions.
Fuel economy gains come from the new 102-pound-lighter aluminum-block engine, EPAS and detailed aerodynamic changes to the underside of the vehicle.

New for 2011 is an SVT Performance Package for enthusiasts who want even more performance out of their Shelby GT500 for racetrack-ready driving dynamics. Complete with all-new Goodyear Eagle® F1 SuperCar G: 2 tires that SVT engineers worked directly with Goodyear to develop, the car is ready to race. The tires offer superb dry traction and precise handling, complete with a race-inspired high-performance tread compound.
The optional package also offers unique styling, lighter wheels, a higher rear axle ratio and stiffer springs, and it is available on both the convertible and coupe. Data show the 2011 coupe with the SVT Performance Package is 3.0 seconds faster per lap than the 2010 Shelby GT500 on a 2.3-mile test track.
Carried over from 2010, the 2011 Shelby GT500 features AdvanceTrac®, Ford's stability control system with several options for performance. Calibration of the system for the 2011 Shelby has been uniquely tailored to each vehicle configuration (base or optional) to optimize the performance.
SVT has worked very hard to make EPAS better than the outgoing hydraulic steering system. The addition of EPAS makes for a dramatic contribution to Shelby GT500 driving dynamics, with improved torque build-up and road feel that delivers quicker and more precise steering, increased effort on the racetrack or winding roads, and reduced effort in low-speed parking maneuvers.

Slotted brake dust shields were added to improve brake cooling and handling, and a new pedal box improves clutch and pedal efforts even more. A lowered ride height of 11 millimeters in front and 8 millimeters at the rear provides a sportier attitude and improved handling.
More engine sound, less road noise

For 2011, Shelby GT500 also benefits from NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) improvements. Overall road noise is reduced by 20 percent versus the 2010 Shelby. Actions undertaken to achieve this improvement include additional sound-deadening material on either side of the instrument panel, additional sound absorption behind interior trim panels, and a rear wheel arch liner to reduce noise on gravel or wet surfaces – all resulting in the driver hearing more exhaust and engine sound and less road and air noise.
The Shelby GT500 convertible model features enhanced structural rigidity, with lateral stiffness improved by 12 percent versus the 2010 model. The V-brace has been stiffened by adding gussets. The secondary crossmember also has been stiffened, while a front Z-brace has been added, connecting primary and secondary crossmembers. A-pillar stiffening foam has been added to increase rigidity.
The structural improvements to the convertible gave SVT the opportunity to be more sport-oriented in the chassis tuning, without trading comfort. Along with the chassis and structural improvements, the 2011 model also will get standard 19-inch aluminum wheels.

“One of the biggest changes for this Shelby is that the convertible acts and feels like a coupe,” said Jamal Hameedi, SVT chief nameplate engineer. “Before, they had a very different character, and the convertible is taking a big step in the sportiness and handling precision area, without degrading the ride.”

 GT500 gets a new exhaust for 2011, roaring with an even more aggressive sound than the 2010 model. The 2.75-inch exhaust with all-new tuning helped to deliver the additional 10 horsepower.


Wednesday, November 12, 2008

Java Script Index

javaJavaScript is normally found embedded in HTML code. That is because JavaScript is run by the client computer's browser.

In this manual, we refer to the language we are learning as JavaScript, which is what it is usually called. However, the name JavaScript is owned by ...

Client-Side JavaScript Reference

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Values, variables, and literals

his chapter discusses values that JavaScript recognizes and describes the fundamental building blocks of JavaScript expressions: variables and literals.


JavaScript recognizes the following types of values:

This relatively small set of types of values, or data types, enables you to perform useful functions with your applications. There is no explicit distinction between integer and real-valued numbers. Nor is there an explicit date data type in Navigator. However, you can use the Date object and its methods to handle dates.

Objects and functions are the other fundamental elements in the language. You can think of objects as named containers for values, and functions as procedures that your application can perform.

Data type conversion

JavaScript is a loosely typed language. That means you do not have to specify the data type of a variable when you declare it, and data types are converted automatically as needed during script execution. So, for example, you could define a variable as follows:

var answer = 42
And later, you could assign the same variable a string value, for example,

answer = "Thanks for all the fish..."
Because JavaScript is loosely typed, this assignment does not cause an error message.

In expressions involving numeric and string values, JavaScript converts the numeric values to strings. For example, consider the following statements:

x = "The answer is " + 42
y = 42 + " is the answer."
The first statement returns the string "The answer is 42." The second statement returns the string "42 is the answer."

For more information on these functions, see Chapter 9, "Built-in objects and functions."
JavaScript provides several special functions for manipulating string and numeric values:

  • eval attempts to evaluate a string representing any JavaScript literals or variables, converting it to a number.
  • parseInt converts a string to an integer of the specified radix (base), if possible.
  • parseFloat converts a string to a floating-point number, if possible.


You use variables as symbolic names for values in your application. You give variables names by which you refer to them and which must conform to certain rules.

A JavaScript identifier, or name, must start with a letter or underscore ("_"); subsequent characters can also be digits (0-9). Because JavaScript is case sensitive, letters include the characters "A" through "Z" (uppercase) and the characters "a" through "z" (lowercase).

Some examples of legal names are Number_hits, temp99, and _name.

Variable scope

You can declare a variable in two ways:

When you set a variable identifier by assignment outside of a function, it is called a global variable, because it is available everywhere in the current document. When you declare a variable within a function, it is called a local variable, because it is available only within the function. Using var is optional, but you need to use it if you want to declare a local variable inside a function that has already been declared as a global variable.

For information on using variables across frames and windows, see Chapter 3, "Using windows and frames."
You can access global variables declared in one window or frame from another window or frame by specifying the window or frame name. For example, if a variable called phoneNumber is declared in a FRAMESET document, you can refer to this variable from a child frame as parent.phoneNumber.


You use literals to represent values in JavaScript. These are fixed values, not variables, that you literally provide in your script.


Integers can be expressed in decimal (base 10), hexadecimal (base 16), and octal (base 8). A decimal integer literal consists of a sequence of digits without a leading 0 (zero). A leading 0 (zero) on an integer literal indicates it is in octal; a leading 0x (or 0X) indicates hexadecimal. Hexadecimal integers can include digits (0-9) and the letters a-f and A-F. Octal integers can include only the digits 0-7.

Some examples of integer literals are: 42 0xFFF, and -345.

Floating-point literals

A floating-point literal can have the following parts: a decimal integer, a decimal point ("."), a fraction (another decimal number), an exponent, and a type suffix. The exponent part is an "e" or "E" followed by an integer, which can be signed (preceded by "+" or "-"). A floating-point literal must have at least one digit, plus either a decimal point or "e" (or "E").

Some examples of floating-point literals are 3.1415, -3.1E12, .1e12, and 2E-12

Boolean literals

The Boolean type has two literal values: true and false.

String literals

A string literal is zero or more characters enclosed in double (") or single (') quotation marks. A string must be delimited by quotation marks of the same type; that is, either both single quotation marks or double quotation marks. The following are examples of string literals:

In addition to ordinary characters, you can also include special characters in strings, as shown in the last element in the preceding list. The following table lists the special characters that you can use in JavaScript strings.

Character Meaning
form feed
new line
carriage return
backslash character

Escaping characters

For characters not listed in the preceding table, a preceding backslash is ignored, with the exception of a quotation mark and the backslash character itself.

You can insert quotation marks inside strings by preceding them with a backslash. This is known as escaping the quotation marks. For example,

var quote = "He read \"The Cremation of Sam McGee\" by R.W. Service."
The result of this would be

He read "The Cremation of Sam McGee" by R.W. Service.

To include a literal backslash inside a string, you must escape the backslash character. For example, to assign the file path c:\temp to a string, use the following:

var home = "c:\\temp"